Red mud catastrophe a warning

2021-8-24 · Around 1.5 tonnes of red mud are produced from processing 1 tonne of alumina. According to an environmental assessment report, the Nhan Co bauxite mining project will turn out more than 11 million cubic metres of waste water and red mud annually. The Tan Rai project may create 80-90 million cubic metres of red mud during its production lifetime.

Brazil mudslide: Deadly floods leave hundreds stranded

2015-11-7 · THE FLOOD of mud came without a warning. The only hint the roughly 600 residents of Bento Rodrigues had that a sea of viscous, clay-red mud was about to flow into their village with the ...

Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource ...

2011-7-3 · World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium is rapidly increasing. An analysis of more than 2,000 seafloor sediment samples suggests that deep-sea mud constitutes a …

Environmental impact of toxic elements in red mud studied ...

Even if the Italian red mud is naturally inertized by the sea water (thanks to the MgO content that neutralizes the caustic soda through the precipitation of "Bayer" hydrotalcite Mg 7 A l2 OH 18 ...

REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths …

Red Mud Disposal: The Ecological Concern of Alumina Refining | …

Red Sea Geothermal Brine Deposits: Their Mineralogy ...

Abstract. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on samples from ten specially selected cores from the Red Sea geothermal deposit. The deposit was divided into seven bedded and laterally correlative facies as follows: (1) detrital. (2) iron-montmorillonite. (3) goethite-amorphous.

Progress of Red Mud Utilization: An Overview

2014-1-20 · Red mud is the solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina (Al2O3) production. Approximately 35–40% of the processed bauxite ore goes into the waste as alkaline red mud slurry which consists of 15–40% solids and 0.8–1.5 tons of red mud is generated per ton of alumina produced [1].

Mining and Refining – Bauxite Residue Management

It is primarily composed of the insoluble fraction of the bauxite ore that remains after extraction of the aluminium-containing components. Iron oxides (10 – 30%), titanium dioxide (2 – 15%), silicon oxide (5 – 20%) and undissolved alumina (0 – 20%) make up the residue, together with a wide range of other oxides which will vary according to the initial bauxite source.

A new and prospective resource for scandium: Evidence from ...

2018-11-1 · Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean is enriched in Sc (up to 130 ppm). • 70% of the Sc in the mud can be recovered in 5 min with dilute HCl or H 2 SO 4.. 1 km 2 × ∼6 m of the mud can serve 7 times of the global annual Sc consumption.. The mud is a unique …

VALUE ADDED METAL EXTRACTION FROM RED MUD

2014-8-1 · Red mud is the solid waste material which is produced during the production of alumina (Al 2 O 3) in the bauxite industry. Red mud is generated by Bayer''s process. Quality and processing of ores containing aluminium defines the amount of red mud produced. 1 to 15 tonnes of dry red mud is generated during production of 1tones of alumina.

Heavy Metal Concentration Analysis for Gastropods off …

2017-7-17 · The Red Sea currently has mining activity, which according to El-Wekeil has been a plausible source of metal contamination off the coastline of the Red Sea (El-Wekeil et al, 2012). El-Wekeil tested metal concentrations in the sediment of several locations along the coastline of the Red Sea in Egypt and found high

Deep-sea mining: plundering the seafloor''s minerals | E&T ...

2019-2-18 · The bulk cutter is the main production machine and the heaviest deep-sea mining unit ever built, weighing in at over 300 tonnes. "Designing a ship-based launch and recovery system was challenging for something of that size," says Stef Kapusniak, mining …

RIS-RESTORE: Evaluation of Red Mud Tailings in the ESEE ...

Red mud (BRM) is a hazardous solid caustic waste formed after the digestion of bauxite ore with sodium hydroxide in Bayer''s process for the extraction of alumina. More than 85 M tonnes of red mud from past metallurgical activities have been landfilled in the countries of the Western Balkans, Slovenia, Croatia, Greece and Hungary.

REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths ...

2015-1-1 · Other than manganese nodules, deep-sea mining of sulfide-rich muds in the Red Sea at ~ 2000 m water depth has been tested by Preussag AG, a German mining company (Amann, 1983, Amann, 1985). Pre-pilot test mining in 1979 used a hydraulic pump system to raise 15,000 m 3 (2.6 million tons) of mud (Amann, 1983, Amann, 1985).

Red Mud Disposal: The Ecological Concern of Alumina ...

2012-10-11 · Another process of red mud disposal is Direct Disposal into the Sea under which process, the sea water dilutes neutralizes the causticity of the red mud and the iron oxide released into sea water helps the marine life algae, corals and other crawling life system grow at a faster rate. Many of the shore based alumina refineries in the world are ...

REY-Rich Mud: A Deep-Sea Mineral Resource for Rare Earths ...

A system to mine REY-rich muds is also presented. This system can be developed based on a system developed and tested for sulfide-rich muds in the Red Sea and manganese nodules in the Pacific Ocean, although pressurized air-lift system will be needed to lift REY-rich muds from very deep water.

Disposal – Red Mud Project

Greece. There is only one alumina industry in Greece. The situation concerning the disposal method is changing. Up to now (2006) Red Mud, is discharged through a pipe line at the sea of Antikyra Bay. A new project, involving high pressure filtering and dry disposal and reuse of Red Mud…

Minesite remediation with seawater neutralised red mud

2005-2-24 · Disposal of red mud is typically problematic for most alumina refineries. Untreated, red mud has such high pH (typically 11-13) that plant growth is impossible. At Gladstone, Queensland Alumina Limited overcame this problem by neutralising the red mud with sea water.

Chapter 2. Production and Processing of Aluminum

1999-5-7 · material, known as red mud, is separated from the sodium aluminate solution, washed to recover the caustic soda, and then pumped to disposal areas. The disposal of red mud can present an environmental problem simply because there is so much of it. From a few alumina plants, red mud is deposited on the sea bed under strictly controlled conditions.

Facts about landmines

2021-8-25 · The following facts reflect the seriousness of this problem: It is estimated that there are 110 million land mines in the ground right now. An equal amount is in stockpiles waiting to be planted or destroyed. Mines cost between $3 and $30, but the cost of …

Indonesia processing requests for deep-sea mining waste ...

2020-5-31 · The requests come as mining waste management is increasingly scrutinized after a nickel plant in neighboring Papua New Guinea spilled red mud into the sea …

Recycling Red Mud

2010-10-25 · But that''s exactly what happened on Oct. 4 in Hungary, when a reservoir containing pH-13 waste from bauxite mining burst open, releasing 700,000 m 3 of red mud, as it''s called. The toxic flood ...

The tremendous potential of deep-sea mud as a source of ...

2018-4-10 · Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements. Nat. Geosci. 4, 535–539 (2011). CAS Article ADS Google Scholar …

"If it''s to balance Alteo''s red mud elsewhere in the world ...

2020-12-10 · If it is to balance the red mud of Alteo in the Mediterranean or elsewhere in the world, it is not better…. "A question that will perhaps address the commercial court of Marseilles on January 7, when it is time to return its final decision. Source: 20Minutes …

Chemistry of Seawater Neutralization of Bauxite Refinery ...

2019-9-9 · Using seawater to neutralize red mud at the Queensland Alumina Ltd. (QAL) refinery at Gladstone, QLD, began as a fresh water conservation measure but led to many benefits, including reduced freshwater use at the refinery, increased settling rates at the pond and reduced alkalinity and sodicity in the solid wastes and entrained liquor.

Brazil dam disaster: Toxic red mud threatens endangered ...

2015-11-24 · Updated December 30, 2015 10:17 GMT. Toxic mud from a collapsed iron mine dam in Brazil has travelled more than 500km along the Rio Doce to reach the Atlantic Ocean. A plume of red mud can be seen ...

Deep-sea mud source of ''21st-century gold''

2011-7-4 · Deep-sea mud source of ''21st-century gold'' The ocean floor of the Pacific is a new source of valuable rare earth elements used in modern technologies. By AFP with AG Staff • July 4, 2011 • Reading Time: 3 Minutes • Print this page

Making The Most Of Red Mud

2014-2-24 · Known formally as bauxite residue, red mud is the noxious by-product of the Bayer process for extracting aluminum from bauxite ore. Aluminum mining leaves behind a staggering 120 million metric ...

Environmental and Radiation Concerns of Red Mud

2018-6-13 · Red mud, also known as bauxite residue, is an insoluble byproduct generated from the extraction of alumina from bauxite during the Bayer process (Fig. 1), a crucial step in the manufacturing of aluminum. Highly alkaline and difficult to deal with, red mud …

» Dead Sea alive with mining activity

2004-5-25 · The Dead Sea mining area is crisscrossed by 2-metre-deep evaporation ponds. Each pond is about 6 square kilometres in size, and the ponds are divided into two categories: salt ponds and carnallite ponds. The latter form the basis for the production of the potash. The salt ponds hold the brine that is not needed in the industrial production ...

Jordan: From Dead Sea to Red Sea

2014-8-20 · This Red Sea city offers beaches, ancient ruins and stunning landscapes – and now is the perfect time to go 05 Feb 2019, 4:23pm The 23 to 70 club: Why travelling through Jordan with total ...

Feasibility of red mud neutralization with seawater using ...

2012-10-30 · The Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite remains the most economical process till date. In the Bayer process, the insoluble product generated after bauxite (containing 40–60 % Al 2 O 3) digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure to produce alumina is known as ''red mud'' or ''bauxite residue''.The waste product gets its name as red mud due to the ...